LC International Journal of STEM (ISSN: 2708-7123) https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem <p><strong>Journal Name:</strong> LC International Journal of STEM<br /><strong>ISSN Number:</strong> <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2708-7123" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2708-7123</a><br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Quarterly<br /><strong>Published by:</strong> <a href="http://lceri.net/journals/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Logical Creations Education Research Institute (LC-ERI)</a>.</p> <p><img src="https://lcjstem.com/public/site/images/zaffarshah/lcjstem-logo50.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="146" /></p> <p><strong>LC International Journal of STEM (LC-JSTEM)</strong>, ISSN Number: 2708-7123, is an open access journal and publish articles from all areas of science, technology, engineering, computational mathematics, technology management and education technology. The main focus of the journal is on practical research and outcomes.</p> <p>LC-JSTEM (ISSN: 2708-7123) was inaugurated on 1st January 2020. This journal is published online quarterly in the months of April, July, October and January by <a href="http://www.lceri.net" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Logical Creations Education Research Institute (LC-ERI)</a>, Quetta-Pakistan.</p> <p>LC-JSTEM (ISSN: 2708-7123) is an open access, double blind peer-reviewed journal, free for readers and we provide a supportive and accessible services for our authors throughout the publishing process. LC-JSTEM recognizes the international influences on the science, technology and engineering platforms and its development.</p> <p>LC-JSTEM (ISSN: 2708-7123) provides an open access forum for scientists, scholars, researchers and engineers to exchange their research work, technical notes and surveying results among professionals through publications.</p> <p> </p> Logical Creations Education Research Institute en-US LC International Journal of STEM (ISSN: 2708-7123) 2708-7123 <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0)</a>.</p> Enhancing Security and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network Routing with IOT Challenges: A Thorough Review https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/190 <p>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as a crucial component in the field of networking due to their cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and compact size, making them invaluable for various applications. However, as the reliance on WSN-dependent applications continues to grow, these networks grapple with inherent limitations such as memory and computational constraints. Therefore, effective solutions require immediate attention, especially in the age of the Internet of Things (IoT), which largely relies on the effectiveness of WSNs. This study undertakes a comprehensive review of research conducted between 2018 and 2020, categorizing it into six main domains: 1) Providing an overview of WSN applications, management, and security considerations. 2) Focusing on routing and energy-saving techniques. 3) Reviewing the development of methods for information gathering, emphasizing data integrity and privacy. 4) Emphasizing connectivity and positioning techniques. 5) Examining studies that explore the integration of IoT technology into WSNs with an eye on secure data transmission. 6) Highlighting research efforts aimed at energy efficiency. The study addresses the motivation behind employing WSN applications in IoT technologies, as well as the challenges, obstructions, and solutions related to their application and development. It underscores that energy consumption remains a paramount issue in WSNs, with untapped potential for improving energy efficiency while ensuring robust security. Furthermore, it identifies existing approaches' weaknesses, rendering them inadequate for achieving energy-efficient routing in secure WSNs. This review sheds light on the critical challenges and opportunities in the field, contributing to a deeper understanding of WSNs and their role in secure IoT applications.</p> Muhammad Umer Mushtaq Prof. Dr. Jiang Hong Muhammad Owais Dr. Samuel A. Danso Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Umer Mushtaq, Prof. Dr. Jiang Hong, Muhammad Owais, Dr. Samuel A. Danso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 1 24 10.5281/zenodo.10184917 A Comprehensive Review of D2D Communication in 5G and B5G Networks https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/192 <p>The evolution of Device-to-device (D2D) communication represents a significant breakthrough within the realm of mobile technology, particularly in the context of 5G and beyond 5G (B5G) networks. This innovation streamlines the process of data transfer between devices that are in close physical proximity to each other. D2D communication capitalizes on the capabilities of nearby devices to communicate directly with one another, thereby optimizing the efficient utilization of available network resources, reducing latency, enhancing data transmission speed, and increasing the overall network capacity. In essence, it empowers more effective and rapid data sharing among neighboring devices, which is especially advantageous within the advanced landscape of mobile networks such as 5G and B5G. The development of D2D communication is largely driven by mobile operators who gather and leverage short-range communications data to propel this technology forward. This data is vital for maintaining proximity-based services and enhancing network performance. The primary objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in different aspects of D2D communication, including the discovery process, mode selection methods, interference management, power allocation, and how D2D is employed in 5G technologies. Furthermore, the study also underscores the unresolved issues and identifies the challenges associated with D2D communication, shedding light on areas that need further exploration and development</p> Owais Muhammad Hong Jiang Bilal Muhammad Mushtaq Muhammad Umer Naeem Muhammad Ahtsam Samuel Dasno Copyright (c) 2023 Owais Muhammad, Hong Jiang, Bilal Muhammad, Mushtaq Muhammad Umer, Naeem Muhammad Ahtsam, Samuel Dasno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 25 46 10.5281/zenodo.10185013 Empirical Evaluation of Pre-Trained Deep Learning Networks for Pneumonia Detection https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/193 <p>Pneumonia is a significant global health issue, characterized by a substantial mortality risk, impacting a vast number of individuals on a global scale. The quick and precise identification of pneumonia is crucial for the optimal treatment and management of this condition. This research work aims to answer the pressing need for precise diagnostic methods by using two advanced deep learning models, namely VGG19 and ResNet50, for the purpose of pneumonia detection in chest X-ray pictures. Furthermore, the present area of research is on the use of deep learning methodologies in the domain of medical image analysis, namely in the identification of pneumonia cases via the examination of chest X-ray images. The study challenge pertains to the pressing need for accurate and automated pneumonia diagnosis to assist healthcare professionals in making timely and educated judgements. The VGG19 and ResNet50 models were trained and assessed using the comprehensive RSNA Pneumonia dataset. In order to enhance their performance in the classification of chest X-ray pictures as either normal or pneumonia-affected, the models underwent rigorous training and meticulous fine-tuning. Based on the results obtained from our investigation, it was seen that the VGG19 model exhibited a notable accuracy rate of 93\%, surpassing the ResNet50 model's accuracy of 84\%. Furthermore, it is worth noting that both models demonstrated a notable level of precision, recall, and f1-scores in the identification of normal and pneumonia patients. This indicates their potential for accurately classifying such instances. Furthermore, our research findings indicate that deep learning models, namely VGG19, have a high level of efficacy in reliably detecting pneumonia via the analysis of chest X-ray pictures. These models has the capacity to function as helpful tools for expediting and ensuring the precise identification of pneumonia by healthcare practitioners.</p> Shahab Uddin Agha Dr. Muhammad Shahid Farhan Mansoor Sumaiya Copyright (c) 2023 Shahab Uddin Agha, Dr. Muhammad Shahid, Farhan Mansoor, Sumaiya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 47 81 10.5281/zenodo.10185080 The Dawn of Digital Payments: Revolutionizing India's Financial Landscape https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/194 <p>The study investigates how India's digital payments revolution has altered the financial landscape. India has recently seen a huge movement towards digital payments as a result of the quick development of technology and the widespread usage of cell phones. This transformation has significantly changed the financial landscape of the country along with how people interact. Demonetization, a government program that was put into effect in 2016, made a substantial contribution to the growth of electronic payments. People and businesses started looking for other payment options as a result of the abrupt withdrawal of high-value currency notes, which increased the volume of digital transactions. People are finding it easier and easier to access digital payment systems as a result of the widespread use of smartphones and the affordability of internet access. With the rise in popularity of mobile payment apps like Paytm, PhonePe, and Google Pay, India's financial landscape has changed. Financial inclusion enabled by the digital revolution has allowed millions of unbanked and underbanked individuals to access formal financial services through digital payments. With just a smartphone and a bank account, people can easily send money, pay bills, and shop online. This change has promoted economic openness in the country and empowered small businesses.</p> Showkat Ahmad Dar Copyright (c) 2023 Showkat Ahmad Dar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 82 98 10.5281/zenodo.10185128 Virtual Machine’s Network Security https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/195 <p>Network virtualization has become progressively unmistakable lately. It enables the creation of organizational frameworks that are expressly tailored to the requirements of distinctive organizational applications and facilitates the introduction of favorable circumstances for the occurrence and evaluation of new designs and conventions. Despite the extensive materiality of organizational virtualization, the widespread use of communication channels and steering devices raises a number of safety-related issues. To enable their use in real, large-scale settings, virtual organization foundations must be given security. In this paper, we see the details of industry's top practices for virtual organization security. We discuss some of the major risks, the main challenges associated with this type of climate, as well as the arrangements suggested in the text that aim to handle various security vantage points. Virtualization is a notable thought having applications in different fields of registering. This strategy takes into consideration the production of numerous virtual stages on a solitary actual framework, taking into consideration the execution of heterogeneous models on a similar equipment. It might likewise be used to streamline the use of actual assets, on the grounds that a manager can progressively make and erase virtual hubs to satisfy fluctuated degrees of need. Virtual Machine’s Network Security is an important topic in today’s world, due to the rapid increase in the use of virtual machines. Virtual machines provide a more efficient, cost effective and secure way of running applications and services. However, there are some security risks associated with virtual machines which must be tackled to ensure the safety and security of the network. This paper presents security principal known as Nonrepudiation which authenticates the delivery of messages and transaction using Digital Signature method. Furthermore, an overview of the security threats and solutions associated with virtual machines and their networks, including the different types of threats, solutions and best practices to protect against them. Additionally, the paper discusses the importance of monitoring and logging in virtual machines. Finally, the paper concludes with a few recommendations for countermeasure the security of virtual machines and their networks.</p> Farhan Mansoor Dr. Kashif Saghar Shahab Uddin Agha Sabir Rehmat Copyright (c) 2023 Farhan Mansoor, Dr. Kashif Saghar, Shahab Uddin Agha, Sabir Rehmat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 99 127 10.5281/zenodo.10185182 Exploring the Nexus of Cryptocurrency and Telecommunication: A Comprehensive Literature Review https://lcjstem.com/index.php/jstem/article/view/196 <p>The rapid evolution of cryptocurrency and telecommunication technologies has brought about significant changes and challenges in various domains. This systematic literature review paper delves into the intricate relationship between cryptocurrency and telecommunication, with a comprehensive examination of key issues, challenges, and potential solutions. By synthesizing insights from a set of 11 relevant articles, this study explores the impact of cryptocurrency on data centers, legal safeguards for block chain and cryptocurrency activities, privacy and security considerations in cryptocurrency transactions, the integration of block chain technology in 5G networks, and the diverse applications of block chain across various domains. The overarching aim of this paper is to provide a holistic understanding of the multifaceted intersection of cryptocurrency and telecommunication. It examines how these themes interconnect and influence each other, offering insights into the implications for industry stakeholders, policymakers, and researchers. By identifying common trends, gaps in the existing literature, and areas requiring further investigation, this review serves as a valuable resource for comprehending the complex dynamics of the cryptocurrency-telecommunication landscape.</p> Alireza Vaezjavadi Dr. Valliappan Raju Copyright (c) 2023 Alireza Vaezjavadi, Dr. Valliappan Raju https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 4 3 128 136 10.5281/zenodo.10185434